The fishing community spread over its long coastal belt of the country makes a vital contribution to the daily requirements of society as well as to the export earnings of the Country. However the social and economic benefit associated with the sector is not reaching at the grass root level. They remain marginalized, live in miserable conditions and experience several occupational risks. The cooperative in the fisheries sector seems to hold a high promise for reducing their vulnerability through its social and solidarity approach. The present paper attempts to describe how and to what extend fishermen’s primary cooperative societies could cater the needs of the marine fishing community and achieve a sustainable fishery. It also describes the economic and social function of primary cooperative societies and critically analyzes the responsiveness of state led and community led cooperatives towards the specific condition and needs of traditional marine fishing communities in Kerala.