Indian government has made efforts to accelerate systematic promotion of dairy cooperatives (DCs) through financial and policy support. The study was an attempt to analyze the contribution of DCs to economic dimensions of sustainable development goals (SDGs) and to draw lessons to strengthen the contribution of DCs to economic dimension of SDGs, and to suggest recommendations to enhance the role and recognition of DCs in achieving SDGs. DCs are value-based and principle-driven sustainable and participatory organizations with emphasis on democratic practices, social inclusion, gender equality, job security, better working conditions, competitive wages, additional income via profit-sharing and distribution of dividends, and self-help community facilities and services to support achievement of SDGs. DCs and the social economy can make substantial, if not unique, contributions to achievement of economic dimensions of SDGs. Therefore, there is need to harness the potential of DCs in achieving SDGs, for which DCs should focus on implementation, financing, and partnership to achieve a few targets with greatest cooperative potential such as eradicating extreme poverty, facilitate access to assets, resources and services, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of very poor, and empower women, for which robust dairy cooperative policies, laws and institutions are highly desirable.